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         Syllabus for 11th Grade U.S History

 

Teacher: Ms. Sujata Sangwan           

Room: 203                  Voicemail: 612/692-1499   Email:sujata.sangwan@mpls.k12.mn.us

Course description: Welcome to 11th Grade U.S History.  This course offers a colorful and exciting section of social studies subjects.  By the end of the year, you will have a solid foundation for entering 12th grade.

Course Objectives: The primary objective is to prepare you to have skills for 12th grade. We focus on academic skills, writing, time management and inter-personal communication skills. Small and large group discussions are a part of classroom learning.  All students are expected to participate in them. This course is writing intensive. You will regularly practice your writing skills. In-class research essays, participation, tests and projects make up a majority of your quarter grade.

Our class in U.S History moves very quickly and covers a lot of material. Therefore, it is important not only that students keep pace with the course, ask questions and seek additional help when needed.  Ms. Sangwan is willing to meet with students after school with requested appointments on Mondays.

 

By the end of this year, you will:

 

ØDemonstrate and strengthen your ability to write formal essays/research papers.

ØStrengthen your note-taking skills.

ØCompare/contrast/synthesize and analyze information.

ØExercise critical thinking and communication skills in formal and informal discussions.

 

You need the following to have in class each day:

Blue or Black ink pens and pencils.

Colored pencils and markers      

Notebook for taking notes in class.                     

Student Planner and ID

 

What you should have for regular use in class:

A dictionary and/or thesaurus   

A copy of APA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

 

COURSE POLICIES: Course policies are the rules and guidelines our class follows, in addition to those established by Patrick Henry High School (All Patrick Henry rules and expectations are enforced in Ms. Sangwan's classroom).  These policies are consistently enforced throughout the school year and are reviewed at the beginning of each quarter.  Each student is expected to know, understand and follow these policies.  If you feel class or school policies need clarification speak with Ms. Sangwan directly.

ATTENDANCE: Prompt daily attendance is expected.  All students must be seated in the classroom and prepared to learn when the bell rings. Each tardy will cost you academic points and negatively influence your grade. According to Patrick Henry policy, you fail the course if you have more than seven absences during an academic quarter. Approved school activities do not count against attendance, provided the student attends the activities and is doing satisfactory work in class.  Additionally, if a student is aware of up-coming absences, it is her/his responsibility to inform Ms. Sangwan before the absences and arrange make-up or alternative work. A friend in class is helpful to collect materials and information if you are absent.                              

CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR: You are a member of a community of learners.  For any community to thrive, certain concepts must be embraced.  In our community, I expect the following general behavior of all students.

RESPECT:  All students will respect themselves, their community members and their learning environment.

READINESS:  All students must attend class everyday and ready to actively participate in daily activities.

RESPONSIBILITY:  All students must accept responsibility for themselves and their actions.

 

Active participation and preparedness is expected at all times!

 

        No distracting items are allowed in the classroom (i.e. headwear, coats, backpacks, food, beverages, chains, purses, electronic devices, pictures, notes, yearbooks, magazines and catalogs).

        Appropriate language will be used in the classroom—no swearing or other offensive remarks will be allowed.

        You are responsible for your academic progress and communication with Ms. Sangwan about problems or struggles is expected from you.

 

CHEATING, COPYING AND PLAGIARISM

Cheating, copying and plagiarism are serious acts of academic dishonesty that are not tolerated.  All team teachers, family members of students involved and the program coordinator will be informed of such behavior.  

Students who cheat receive a zero for the assignment or exam. Students involved in copying of work receive a zero for the assignment or exam, including any student allowing the copying to take place. Students who plagiarize receive a failing grade for the quarter.    Plagiarism is the use of another’s ideas or expression without appropriate acknowledgement of the source.  Examples of plagiarism include failure to give appropriate acknowledgement when repeating another’s phrase, sentence or paragraph; failure to give appropriate acknowledgement when paraphrasing another’s thesis or argument; failure to give appropriate acknowledgement when presenting another’s line of thinking; or, turning in a paper for a current course that was written for another course.   

Plagiarism, like cheating and copying, results in serious consequences. If students or family members have questions about this, please talk to Ms. Sangwan.  All students are expected to achieve at the level of 60% or better in this class without factoring in extra credit. As a general rule, students should not expect extra credit.  Opportunities for extra credit related to course content may arise throughout the year. Additionally, students choosing to drop their lowest score of the quarter are not allowed any extra credit points.  

 

HOMEWORK: All homework assignments must be completed on the scheduled due date. Unless otherwise noted, assignments are collected at the beginning of the class period. ALL ASSIGNMENTS ARE ACCEPTED WITH 25% POINTS DEDUCTED ON THE NEXT DAY AND NO LATER.  Students receive reading packets with excerpts from a variety of sources as well as primary source documents.  Course content has been put together through a variety of sources and is regularly updated as new and reliable information is made available. Reading packets made available to students may be done so in class-sets. Therefore, it is necessary that students use the reading time given in class effectively.

 

GRADING SCALE IN PERCENTAGES:

93-100%=A

 

90-92%=A-

 

86-90%=B+

 

83-86%=B

 

80-82%=B-

 

77-79%=C+

 

73-76%=C

 

70-72%=C-

 

67-69%=D+

 

63-66%=D

 

60_62%=D-

 

59% or below=F

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

High School United States History

MPS Curriculum Map


Quarter I

 

Essential Question:

·        How did the European conquest of North America transform indigenous civilizations, institutionalize African slavery, and ultimately lead to an independent and democratic United States?

 

Units:

1. Indigenous People of North America

2. Three Worlds Converge

3. Colonial Development

4. American Revolution

5. Foundations of the American Government and Nation

 

 

Quarter II

 

Essential Question:

·        In what ways was the Civil War inevitable?

 

Units:

6. Westward Expansion

7. Innovations and Inventions

8. Early Reform Movements

9. Causes of the Civil War

10. Civil War and Reconstruction

 

 

 

Quarter III

 

Essential Question:

·        What role did industrial capitalism play in American life and in the United States’ rise as a world power?

 

Units:

11. Industrialization and Immigration

12. Imperialism and World War I

13. The Twenties and Thirties

 

 

 

Quarter IV

 

Essential Question:

·        How have postwar social, political, and economic forces changed the United States internally and in its relationships with the rest of the world?

 

Units:

14. World War II

15. The Cold War Era

16. The Rights Revolution

17. Vietnam and its Aftermath

18. Contemporary America

 

Floating Unit in all quarters: Historical Inquiry

 


 

 

 

Ms Sangwan: U.S. History Quarter I syllabus

 

Essential Question:

·        How did the European conquest of North America transform indigenous civilizations, institutionalize African slavery, and ultimately lead to an independent and democratic United States?

 

Units in quarter I:

1. Indigenous People of North America

2. Three Worlds Converge

3. Colonial Development

4. American Revolution

5. Foundations of the American Government and Nation

 

1. Indigenous People of North America

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the variety of indigenous cultures in North America before and during European exploration.

? Why were indigenous cultures unable to sustain themselves in the face of European contact?

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of indigenous cultures in North America prior to and during western exploration.

1. Students will identify important cultural aspects and regional variations of major North American Indian nations.

 

2. Three Worlds Converge

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the cultural, technological, economic, agricultural, and political developments as the peoples and the cultures of Africa, America, and Europe converge.

? What was it about European civilization that allowed it to solidify control over other regions of the world?

ê The student will understand how European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected peoples.

1. Students will identify the stages and motives of European oceanic and overland exploration from the 15th to the 17th centuries.  

2. Students will describe the consequences of early interactions between Europeans and American Indian nations.  

3. Students will describe key characteristics of West African kingdoms and the development of the Atlantic slave trade.

ê The student will understand the economic development of the English colonies in North America and the exploitation of enslaved Africans.

1. Students will describe and evaluate the enslavement of Africans, the Middle Passage and the use of slave labor in European colonies. 

 

3. Colonial Development

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the social, political, and economic factors that created regional differences in the American colonies. 

? Students will understand the implementation of the enslavement of Africans and the expulsion of native peoples.

?How did colonial regions develop in different ways?

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of the colonies and the factors that shaped colonial North America.

1. Students will compare and contrast life within the colonies and their geographical areas, including New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, and analyze their impact.  

2. Students will identify the growing differences and tensions between the European colonies, England and American Indian Nations.

 

4. American Revolution

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.

? How did ideas and events lead to the American struggle for independence?

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution.

1. Students will analyze the major economic, political, and philosophical conflicts leading to the American Revolution including the roles of the First and Second Continental Congresses and the Declaration of Independence. 

2. Students will explain how and why the Americans won the war against superior British resources, analyzing the role of key leaders, major campaigns and events, and participation by ordinary soldiers and civilians. 

3. Students will explain the impact of the Revolutionary War on groups within American society, including loyalists, patriots, women and men, Euro-Americans, enslaved and free African Americans, and American Indians.

 

5. Foundations of the American Government and Nation

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the principles and ideals that shaped the development of the United States’ democratic institutions.

? How did its history lead to a unique form of democracy for the United States?

ê The student will understand the foundation of the American government and nation.

1. Students will identify and explain the basic principles that were set forth in the documents that declared the nation’s independence (the Declaration of Independence, inalienable rights and self-evident truths) and that established the new nation’s government (the Constitution).

2. Students will describe and evaluate the major achievements and problems of the Confederation period, and analyze the debates over the Articles of Confederation and the revision of governmental institutions that created the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights, and the interpretive function of the Supreme Court. 

3. Students will describe and explain the emergence of the first American party system.    

 

 

 

 

Ms Sangwan: U.S. History Quarter II syllabus

 

Quarter Two Essential Question:

·        In what ways was the Civil War inevitable?

Units:

6. Westward Expansion

7. Innovations and Inventions

8. Early Reform Movements

9. Causes of the Civil War

10. Civil War and Reconstruction

 

6. Westward Expansion

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the demographic, economic, and political forces that led to continental expansion and the consequences of that expansion.

? How does this term “manifest destiny” capture the forces that led to continental expansion?

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of the early republic and how territorial expansion affected foreign relations.

1. Students will describe the causes and analyze the effects of the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the Monroe Doctrine.       

2. Students will analyze the impact of territorial expansion on American Indian nations and the evolution of federal and state Indian policies. 

3. Students will analyze the causes and consequences of U.S. geographic expansion to the Pacific, including the concept of Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War.

ê The student will analyze the process of westward expansion in the late 19th century.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of post-Civil War westward expansion including the resulting conflicts with American Indian nations.

 

7. Innovations and Inventions

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand how the innovations and inventions in industry, technology, and transportation impacted life in the United States.

? How does innovation express the rise of developing capitalism in the United States?

ê The student will understand how explosive growth (economic, demographic, geographic) and technological innovation transformed American society.

1. Students will describe and analyze the impact of innovations in industry, technology and transportation on life in America.

2. Students will examine demographic growth and patterns of population change and their consequences for American society before the Civil War. 

 

8. Early Reform Movements

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the sources, characteristics, and effects of cultural, religious, and social reform movements – including the abolition, temperance, and women’s rights movements.

? How do the various reform movements show how democratic ideas and institutions are dynamic rather than static?

ê The student will understand the sources, characteristics, and effects of antebellum reform movements.

1.  Students will understand the sources, characteristics and effects of cultural, religious and social reform movements, including the abolition, temperance, and women’s rights movements.

ê The student will understand the extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800.

1. Students will describe and analyze changes in American political life including the spread of universal white male suffrage, restrictions on free African Americans, and the emergence of the Second Party System. 

 

9. Causes of the Civil War

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will be able to understand the political impacts of the growing sectional polarization evidenced in key events including the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, The Fugitive Slave Law, the rise of the Republican Party, and secession.

? How did the economic, social, and cultural differences between the North and the South result in irreconcilable differences leading to war?

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of the long- and short-term causes of the Civil War

1. Students will identify and explain the economic, social, and cultural differences between the North and the South.  

2. Students will understand and analyze the political impact of debates over slavery and growing sectional polarization in key events including the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law, the rise of the Republican party, the Southern secession movement and the formation of the Confederacy.

 

10. Civil War and Reconstruction

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand how the differences in resources of the Union and Confederacy affected the course of the war and Union victory. 

? Students will understand and explain the political impact of the war and its aftermath in Reconstruction.

? How did the Civil War lead to the reform of the American political system as a more democratic government and one more consistent with the original ideals?

ê The student will understand the course, character, and outcome of the Civil War.

1. Students will identify events and leaders of the war, and analyze how the differences in resources of the Union and Confederacy (economy, technology, demography, geography, political and military leadership) affected the course of the war and Union victory. 

2. Students will describe and explain the social experience of the war on battlefield and home front, in the Union and the Confederacy.

3. Students will analyze the significance of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address and its views of American political life.

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of the consequences of Civil War and Reconstruction.

1. Students will describe the content of and reasons for the different phases of Reconstruction, and analyze their successes and failures in transforming social and race relations.

2. Students will understand and explain the political impact of the war and its aftermath in Reconstruction, including emancipation and the redefinition of freedom and citizenship, expansion of the federal bureaucracy; expansion of federal authority and its impact on states’ rights.

 

 

Ms Sangwan: U.S. History Quarter III syllabus

 

Quarter Three Essential Question:

·        What role did industrial capitalism play in American life and in the United States’ rise as a world power?

Units:

11. Industrialization and Immigration

12. Imperialism and World War I

13. The Twenties and Thirties

 

11. Industrialization and Immigration

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand how the forces of industrialization and immigration, transformed the United States from an agrarian society to a modern industrial nation and the problems and reforms that followed that transformation.

? How do the forces of industrialization and immigration, transform the United States from an agrarian society to a modern industrial nation and what problems and reforms followed that transformation?

ê The student will describe and analyze the linked processes of industrialization and urbanization after 1870.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge about how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American economy, including the role of key inventions and the growth of national markets.   

2. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the rapid growth of cities and the transformation of urban life, including the impact of migration from farms and new technologies, the development of urban political machines, and their role in financing, governing, and policing cities.

ê The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and consequences of immigration to the United States from 1870 to the First World War.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the massive wave of “New” immigration after 1870, its differences from the “Old” immigration, and its impact on new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity.

ê The student will understand the origins of racial segregation.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the imposition of racial segregation, African American disfranchisement, and growth of racial violence in the post-reconstruction South, the rise of “scientific racism,” and the debates among African-Americans about how best to work for racial equality.

ê The student will describe how industrialization changed nature of work and the origins and role of labor unions in the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge about how the rise of industry changed the nature of work in factories, the origins of labor unions, and the role of state and federal governments in labor conflicts.

ê The student will understand the changing dynamics of national politics in the late 19th century.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge about the ways the American people responded to social, economic, and political changes through electoral politics and social movements such as populism and temperance.

ê The student will analyze the wide range of reform efforts known as Progressivism between 1890 and the First World War.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of how Progressives addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption.  

2. Students will analyze the debates about woman suffrage and demonstrate knowledge of the successful campaign that led to the adoption of the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote.

 

 

 

12. Imperialism and World War I

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand how the United States changed from a regional power to an economic and political world power.

? How did World War I change the United States from a regional power to an economic and political world power?

ê The student will understand the causes and consequences of American expansionism and the Spanish-American War.

1. Students will examine the causes of the Spanish-American war and analyze its effects on foreign policy, national identity, and the debate over the new role of America as a growing power in the Pacific and Latin America.

ê The student will understand the causes and consequences of World War I.

1. Students will analyze the causes of World War I and identify key people, major events, and the war’s impact on American foreign and domestic policy.

 

 

13. The Twenties and Thirties

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the social, political, and economic forces of the 1920’s and how they led to the Great Depression and the rise of the New Deal.

? How did the various social forces of the 1920’s and 1930’s lead to the end of unregulated capitalism and greater national government involvement in economic and social life?

ê The student will understand how the United States changed politically, culturally, and economically from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression. 

1. Students will analyze how developments in industrialization, transportation, communication, and urban mass culture changed American life. 

2. Students will describe key social changes related to immigration, social policy, and race relations. 

3. Students will examine the changing role of art, literature and music in the 1920s and 30s.

ê The student will understand the origins and impact of Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1940.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected Americans in all walks of life. 

2. Students will demonstrate knowledge of how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression and transformed American federalism.

 

Ms Sangwan: U.S. History Quarter IV syllabus

Quarter Four Essential Question:

·        How have postwar social, political, and economic forces changed the United States internally and in its relationships with the rest of the world?

Units:

14. World War II

15. The Cold War Era

16. The Rights Revolution

17. Vietnam and its Aftermath

18. Contemporary America

14. World War II

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the causes and consequences of World War II.

? How does World War II propel the United States to center stage on the world scene and lead to the division of Europe and the Cold War?

 

? How did World War II lead to changes in American social structure and American economic life?

ê The student will understand the origins of World War II, the course of the war, and the impact of the war on American society.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the international background of World War II and the debates over American involvement in the conflict.    

2. Students will demonstrate knowledge of key leaders and events of World War II and how the Allies prevailed.

3. Students will describe the impact of the war on people such as women, African Americans and Japanese Americans.

 

15. The Cold War Era

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? The student will understand the transformation of the United States after World War II and the impact of the Cold War on both international and domestic affairs.

? How did the cold war impact U.S. international affairs and life at home?

ê The student will understand the social and economic changes in the United States, 1945-1960

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of social transformation in post-war United States.

2. Students will understand the post-war economic boom and its impact on demographic patterns, role of labor, and multinational corporations.

ê The student will understand the Cold War, its causes, consequences and its military conflicts.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of key events of the Cold War and the causes and consequences of the Korean War.  

 

16. The Rights Revolution

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the causes and consequences of the “rights revolution” including the civil rights movement, youth movements, Native American rights movements, women’s rights movements, expansion of civil liberties, and the movements to protect for the environment and consumer rights.

? How were the forces at work that allowed these social movements to arise in the postwar period?

ê The student will understand the key domestic political issues and debates in the postwar era to 1972.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the domestic policies and civil rights issues of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations.  

2. Students will analyze provisions of Kennedy’s New Frontier and Johnson’s Great Society.

 

ê The student will understand the changes in legal definitions of individual rights in the 1960s and 1970s and the social movements that prompted them.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the “rights revolution” including the civil rights movement, women’s rights movements, expansion of civil liberties, and environmental and consumer protection.

 

17. Vietnam and its Aftermath

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the causes, the nature of the involvement and consequences of the Vietnam War.

? How did the United States get involved in the war and how did American involvement in the war result in social changes at home and in international affairs?

ê The student will understand the Cold War, its causes, consequences and its military conflicts.

2. Students will analyze America’s involvement in the Vietnam War.  

ê The student will understand the key domestic political issues and debates in the postwar era to 1972.

3. Students will analyze the impact of the foreign and domestic policies of Nixon.  

 

18. Contemporary America

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? Students will understand the evolution of foreign and domestic policy in the last three decades of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.

? How does the rising global economy lead to new forms of domestic and international conflict?

ê The student will understand the evolution of foreign and domestic policy in the last three decades of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.

1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the changing domestic and foreign policies in the Ford, Carter, Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Clinton, George W. Bush administrations. 

2 Students will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, and cultural developments in contemporary United States.

3. Students will know and describe the political and economic policies that contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War.

 

High School United States History – Floating Unit in all quarters

 

Floating Unit: Historical Inquiry

 

 

 

Enduring Understanding(s)

Essential Question(s)

State Standard(s)

State Recommended Assessment Benchmarks

? The student will understand how to apply research skills through an in-depth investigation of a historical topic.

? The student will understand how to analyze historical evidence and draw conclusions.

 

 

 

Other Research Projects

? The essential question will vary with the type of project assigned.

 

ê The student will apply research skills through an in-depth investigation of a historical topic.

 

1. Students will define a research topic that can be studied using a variety of historical sources with an emphasis on the use of primary sources.  

2. Students will identify and use repositories of research materials including libraries, the Internet, historical societies, historic sites, and archives, as appropriate for their project.  

3. Students will evaluate web sites for authenticity, reliability, and bias.  

4. Students will learn how to prepare for, conduct, and document an oral history.  

5. Students will apply strategies to find, collect and organize historical research.

ê The student will analyze historical evidence and draw conclusions.

 

1. Students will understand the use of secondary sources to provide background and insights on historical events, and that secondary sources might reflect an author’s bias.  

2. Students will identify the principal formats of published secondary source material and evaluate such sources for both credibility and bias.    

3. Students will compare and contrast primary sources to analyze first-hand accounts of historical events and evaluate such sources for both credibility and bias.  

4. Students will review primary and secondary sources and compare and contrast their perspectives to shape their presentation of information relevant to their research topic.  

5. Students will understand the historical context of their research topic and how it was influenced by, or influenced, other historical events.  

6. Students will evaluate alternative interpretations of their research topic and defend or change their analysis by citing evidence from primary /secondary sources.